Donald's Encyclopedia of Popular Music
(b Manley Augustus Buchanan) Jamaican toaster, the first to preach an overt Ras Tafari message in his lyrics. Made reputation with the Tippertone sound system early '70s, first hit 'S90 Skank' for singer/prod. Keith Hudson. Featured on Prince Buster's Chi Chi Run album; made his own epochal Screaming Target '73 for Gussie Clarke. He freelanced, with titles such as 'JA To UK', 'Foreman v Frazier' and 'A So We Stay' with Dennis Brown; also formed his own Negusa Nagast label, releasing 'Sky Juice', 'Daylight Saving Time', 'Dread In A Babylon'; breakthrough came with Dread Locks Dread '75 for Prince Tony Robinson, perhaps the most infl. reggae album of that year (now on The Front Line CD). He began to prod. himself more or less exclusively and to vary his style, even singing (approximately) e.g. 'Every Nigger Is A Winner' on Natty Cultural Dread and a reworking of Ray Charles's 'Hit The Road Jack' on the album of that name. His great popularity waned towards the end of the decade, but he continued to prod. work on his label into the '80s: Isaiah -- The First Prophet Of Old, Progress, Rock Holy and Reggae Gi Dem Dub, while retrospectives fuelled his cult status. Several CDs now on Heartbeat, ESX; Jammin In The House Of Dread '90 on ROIR made live at Reggae Japansplash.