Donald's Encyclopedia of Popular Music
Genre of late '40s, blend of Afro-Cuban rhythms and Afro-American jazz in which (unusually) neither suffered dilution or loss. Musical traffic between Caribbean and USA was always two-way and prolific, e.g. Jelly Roll Morton's 'Spanish tinge'; Cuba was especially important even after Castro because of emigrants to NYC. US swing bands of '40s were popularizers; i.e. J. Dorsey's 'Green Eyes' and 'Maria Elena', Artie Shaw's 'Frenesi' were all songs by Latin composers with English lyrics. Infl. of Mario Bauz in the Cab Calloway band on Dizzy Gillespie was important; pianist Noro Morales was infl. by jazz; Stan Kenton, Woody Herman, Nat Cole, Gene Krupa hired Cuban musicians, esp. percussionists. Bop resulted in close co- operation and more authentic music. 'The Peanut Vendor', recorded '30 by Louis Armstrong ('39 by Raymond Scott, on flip side of 'The Businessman's Bounce') revived late '47 by Kenton with percussionists from the Machito band incl. Machito himself; earlier in '47 Kenton had recorded tribute 'Machito' with Cuban-style horn section, inserted Latin elements into other pieces such as 'Fugue For Rhythm Section'. But Kenton was always derivative; the best music was from Gillespie and Machito, which they made a legitimate offshoot of bop, distinct from Latin jazz. Chano Pozo was the most important of Latin percussionists in jazz; he first chanted and played rhythms Afro-Cuban style with Gillespie at Carnegie Hall '47 (see his entry). Machito's mus. dir. Bauz wrote Afro-Cuban jazz 'Tanga' '43 (recorded '49), became Machito's theme; later used guests Dexter Gordon, Howard McGhee, Milt Jackson, Flip Phillips, Charlie Parker, Brew Moore (tenor sax; b Milton Aubrey Moore, 26 March '24, Indianola MS; d 19 Aug. '73, San Francisco; relocated to Denmark '61--8): 'Cubop City -- Parts 1 And 2' '48 had solos by Moore, McGhee; 'Flying Home' '49 spotlighted Phillips; 'No Noise', 'Mango Mang]auu[e', 'Okidoke' Parker, all '47--9. Machito's Afro-Cubans with McGhee, Moore, Phillips and Zoot Sims heard in broadcasts from NYC's Royal Roost, Bop City and Birdland clubs '49--51 (compiled on Tumbao '92); all with disc jockey Symphony Sid Torrin as MC. Also in '49 Cozy Cole led seven-piece novelty act called Cuboppers, with horns infl. by Gillespie, Cuban beat: 'La Danza', 'Botao', 'Mosquito Bran'. See entry for Gillespie, who still recorded with Machito, others in '80s.